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Pearl producing mollusc descriptions and definitions

For the reasons of these CIBJO Standard/leads, the accompanying terms and definitions apply;

6.1. Abalone

ear-formed marine gastropod (6.21) of the family Haliotis (6.24), with nacre in multi-tones of blue, green, cream, red and purple; the meat is consumable; produces particular natural pearls (5.118), blisters (5.117) and cultured blisters (5.1) are delivered in a few locales (e.g., California, New Zealand); otherwise called paua (New Zealand) and awabi (Japan). (Mikkelsen, 2003).

6.2. Actinonaias pectorosa

Actinonaias pectorosa (Conrad, 1834) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, generally known the Pheasant shell and the Cumberland Mucket. It is an extensive generally curved, thick-shelled mussel. The periostracum is golden cocoa with broken green rays; more seasoned people might get to be chestnut or black. The nacre might be pale blue to rich or shiny white with radiance along the edges. This species is found in the Tennessee and Cumberland River bowls, and lives in sand and rock in quick stream ebbs and flows.

6.3. Akoya pearl clam

Pinctada fucata (martensii) (6.45) is utilized widely for pearl culture as a part of Japan, China and different ranges. Akoya is the Japanese name for this pearl shellfish (Mikkelsen, 2003).

6.4. Amblema plicata

Amblema plicata (Say, 1817) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the three edge mussel, Blue-point, purple-tip, or fluter. The shell is stretched or adjusted shell with edges or creases on the back half. No molding on the front end. Nacre pearly white, regularly recolored, glowing. A few people have a purple tint. Amblema plicata live in little to expansive streams and impoundments in mud, sand, or rock (2005a, 2005b).

6.5. Argopecten purpuratus

the pectinid bivalve Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) or Chilean scallop, possesses the Pacific Ocean, between the northern bank of Peru and focal Chile, and has turned into an imperative business species. It is disseminated along the Pacific coast between Arica (18°25″S) and Valparaiso. This species lives on sedimentary grounds in shielded regions (Moragat, 2001). Produces scallop pearls like those from the Lion’s Paw (6.31)

6.6. Atlantic Pearl Oyster

Pinctada imbricata (6.46); the pearl clam local to the Caribbean and southeastern North America, which was misused by Spanish pearl gatherers in the sixteenth and seventeenth hundreds of years (Mikkelsen, 2003).

6.7. Black-lipped Pearl Oyster

Pinctada margaritifera (6.49), utilized widely for pearl culturing as a part of French Polynesia. The greatest going pearl shellfish, it has a past filled with natural pearl gathering in the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, all through the Indo-Pacific islands, Mexico and Japan (Okinawa). Additionally Pinctada mazatlanica (6.51), Mexico and Panama.

6.8. Cassis madagascarensis

of the family Cassidae, Cassis madagascarensis otherwise called the Emperor Helmet (6.18), is a substantial species with a level tower, the body whorl has three lines of winding blunted handles and fine adjusted hub edges. The underside is peachy orange – mirroring the shade of a few pearls created by this mollusc. The lip bears around 10 in number denticles and the columella bears solid white winding ribs and overlays, tinged between the dim cocoa or black. (Wye, 1991).

6.9. Ceylon Pearl Oyster

Pinctada radiata (6.52), the pearl clam with the longest history of maintained gathering, local to the Gulf of Mannar, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea (Mikkelsen, 2003).

6.10. Chambered nautilus

a local of the tropical Pacific, a cousin of the octopus and is a living connection with the past—minimal changed for more than 150 million years. The nautilus has more than 90 arms. These appendages have scores and edges that hold sustenance and pass it into the nautilus’ mouth. A nautilus swims utilizing plane drive—it removes water from its mantle depression through a siphon situated close to its head. By altering the course of the siphon, a nautilus can swim forward, in reverse or sideways. See likewise Coque de perle (5.45).

6.11. Conch

basic name connected to a few types of marine snails (i.e., gastropods 6.21) including the Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) (6.67), Horse Conch (Pleuroploca gigantea) (6.54), and the Emperor Helmet (Cassis madagasgerensis) (6.8) (see likewise 6.18). (Wye, 1991, Kamat, 2000). Note: see Clause 2 Normative References; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

6.12. Cristaria plicata

on the other hand Cockscomb Pearl Mussel; the freshwater pearl mussel originally utilized for pearl culturing as a part of both Japan and China. In Chinese, the name is zhou wen guan blast; in Japan, it is known as the Karasu mussel (Mikkelsen, 2003).

6.13. Cumberlandia monodonta

Cumberlandia monodonta (Say, 1829) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, generally known Spectaclecase. It is a lengthen shell, generally squeezed in the center, dim chestnut to black, with ineffectively created teeth. Nacre is white, radiant. Length to 8 inches (20.3 cm). It lives in expansive waterways with quickly streaming water, among stones in patches of sand, cobble, or rock in zones where momentum is diminished.

6.14. Cyclonaias tuberculata

Cyclonaias tuberculata (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Purple Wartyback, Missouri mapleleaf, purple pimpleback, or deerhorn. It has an adjusted shell with a genuinely conspicuous wing, mouth secured with fine wavy forming, no green stripe on the umbo, purple nacre and a profound and packed nose hole. The nacre is typically profound purple, or sporadically white with a purple tinge. Cyclonaias tuberculata lives in medium to huge streams in rock or blended sand and rock.

6.15. Cyrtonaias tampicoensis

Cyrtonaias tampicoensis or the Tampico pearly mussel has no noteworthy outer shell designing and might reach more than 130mm in shell length. Colouration changes from yellowish-chestnut to dim cocoa and black. Inside, nacre is ordinarily purple, yet might be multi shaded. Pearls are the same hues as the nacre. Their living space ranges from moderately little streams to vast supplies in waters under 20 feet somewhere down in Texas USA (Howells, 2005).

6.16. Ellipsaria lineolata

Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Butterfly. It has a triangular, straightened shell, pointedly calculated back edge, yellowish cocoa, with broken chestnut rays, the nacre is white and brilliant. Ellipsaria lineolata live in substantial streams in sand or rock. Length to 4 inches (10.2 cm).

6.17. Elliptio crassidens

Elliptio crassidens (Lamarck, 1819) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Elephant-ear, Mule’s ear, or blue ham. It is an overwhelming, strong, and triangular shell with dim chestnut to black periostracum. The nacre shading is variable, normally purple or at times pink or white. Elliptio crassidens live in huge streams in mud, sand, or fine rock. Length to 6 inches (15.2 cm).

6.18. Head Helmet

see Cassis madagasgarensis (6.8) (Wye, 1991).

6.19. Fusconaia ebena

Fusconaia ebena (Lea, 1831) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called Ebonyshell; It is a round, substantial, thick, cocoa or black shell without rays or pustules its snout hole is profound. Fusconaia ebena live in vast streams in sand and rock, the nacre is pearly white and glowing. Length to 10.2 cm (4 inches).

6.20. Fusconaia flava

Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Wabash Pigtoe or just Pigtoe; it is a triangular shell with a shallow sulcus normally introduce as an afterthought with harsh clothlike periostracum, and profound mouth cavity. The nacre is white or tinged with salmon and glowing. Fusconaia flava lives in brooks to vast streams in mud, sand, or rock.

6.21. Gastropod

a univalve mollusc that frequently has a head with eyes; Gastropods incorporates area and sea snails. (See e.g., 5.43 and 5.104) (Wye, 1991).

6.22. Goliath Clam

see 6.69

Note: see Clause 2 Normative References; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

6.23. Gold-lipped Pearl Oyster

an assortment of Pinctada maxima (6.50), utilized widely for pearl culturing as a part of Australia, Myanmar, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand; see additionally Silver-lipped Pearl Oyster (6.66).

6.24. Haliotis

Haliotidae or abalones (6.1) are an extensive group of gastropods that are otherwise called ormers or sea ears in different territories. The shape is reliably level with little proof of a tower; they are either oval or round and have a progression of gaps on the body whorl. The insides are luminous and can be extremely vivid, their living space ranges from low tide zones to a few many feet profundity (Wye, 1991).

6.25. Horse Conch

see Pleuroploca gigantea (6.54) (Wye, 1991).

6.26. Hyriopsis cumingii

Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea, 1852) or triangleshell pearl mussel extends naturally in China. It has a thicker shell than the Cockscomb (Cristaria plicata 6.12), with pink to peach-shaded nacre. Both natural and cultured Triangleshell pearls happen in an extensive variety of hues, from white to pink, lavender and profound rose. (Mikkelsen, 2003, Akamatsu, 2001).

6.27. Hyriopsis schlegeli

on the other hand Biwa pearly mussel used to deliver non-beaded cultured pearls in Lake Biwa Japan, (Farn, 1986).

6.28. La Paz Pearl Oyster

Pinctada mazatlanica (6.51), from the eastern Pacific Ocean, in the blink of an eye cultured in the Gulf of California for rankle and cultured pearls (5.48).

6.29. Lasmigona complanata

Lasmigona complanata (Barnes, 1823) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the White Heelsplitter, the Pancake, razorback, elephant-ear, or plumage back. It is a vast, adjusted, packed, moderately thin shell, obtusely pointed at the back end; dull cocoa or black periostracum, twofold circled bill figure. The nacre is pale blue white or white and glowing. Lasmigona complanata lives in pools or lazy streams with a mud, sand, or fine rock base.

6.30. Ligumia recta

Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Black sandshell, Black sand mussel, long John, legit John, sow’s ear, or woman’s shoe. It is a stretched shell, pointed on the back end, smooth surface, typically dim cocoa to black. The nacre is variable from white, pink, and salmon to profound purple and brilliant. Length to 8 inches (20.3 cm).

6.31. Lion‟s Paw

of the numerous scallops there are three bearing the basic name Lion’s Paw, one of these is the exceedingly uncommon Nodipecten magnificus (Sowerby, 1835) which is to a great extent confined to the Galapagos Islands. The other two are Nodipecten (Lyropecten) Nodosus (Atlantic Lion’s Paw) L. 1758 and Nodipecten (Lyropecten) subnodosus (Pacific Lion’s Paw otherwise called Mano de Leon) Sowerby 1835, the biggest pectinid in tropical waters. N. nodosus is found in the seas of South-eastern USA to Brazil and N. subnodosus in the seas of Western Central America at profundities that change from 25 to 150 meters. Together the shell hues are outstanding in both their assortment and profundity. The external surface of the shell might be a few shades of cocoa, once in a while depicted as chocolate chestnut and yellow to orange while the inside fluctuates from pearly white to shades of purple and chestnut. The external surface of the N. nodosus shell regularly shows a few lines of adjusted nodular bulges running down around eight adjusted ribs (albeit numerous from the southern Caribbean are smooth, possibly separating it from N. subnodosus which have no such projections). Both the Atlantic and Pacific Lion’s Paws have fan-molded (regular of scallops by and large) rise to valves with unequal ears. Lion’s Paw scallops might deliver unmistakable natural non-nacreous pearls (Scarratt, 2004).

6.32. Mabe pearl clam

See Pteria penguin (6.58)

6.33. Margaritifera

the taxonomic name connected to one of two substances: (1) the ebb and flow family name connected to one gathering of freshwater pearl mussels, including the regular pearl-delivering mussel of Europe and North America, margaritifera (6.34); (2) as a species-name, that for the Black-lipped Pearl Oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) (6.49). Margarita is the Latin expression for pearl, it gets from the Greek margaros pearl clam.

6.34. Margaritifera

the freshwater pearl mussel margaritifera develops to 140 mm long, and tunnels into sandy substrates, regularly in the middle of stones and rocks, in quick streaming waterways and streams. It requires cool, very much oxygenated delicate water free of contamination or turbidity. The mussel spends its larval, or glochidial, stage joined to the gills of salmonid fishes. The hatchlings append themselves amid mid to late summer and drop off the accompanying spring to settle in the riverbed rock where they develop to adulthood. Margaritifera can be found all through Europe and North America.

6.35. Megalonaias nervosa

Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Washboard, Bald-pate, or board. It is a huge, black shell, vigorously designed with V-formed edges in the front and substantial folds on the sides and back, especially in littler shells. The nacre is white, regularly with purple or copper-shaded blotches and luminous. Megalonaias nervosa lives fundamentally in vast waterways with a decent ebb and flow, and once in a while in medium-sized streams in mud, sand, or rock. Megalonaias nervosa has been utilized for the production of shell beads that shape the core of beaded cultured pearls (5.15).

6.36. Melo aethiopica

a marine gastropod (5.101) and one of the melo volutes; this species lives primarily in Indonesian waters yet is for the most part disseminated from Java in the west to Papua New Guinea in the east. Their natural surroundings is apparently thick volcanic sand in shallow waters. Measurements are somewhere around 200 and 250mm long, with a biggest reported size of 348mm. The protoconch is normally splendid yellow in shading, however by and large the shell is a light chestnut or mahogany it has 14 to 18 subsutural spines for each whorl and three columella plaits. Now and then Melo aethiopica have a rich yellow winding band amidst the whorls, and youthful shells might have an example of little dull blotches. There is no consistent angling. Melo aethiopica is the bailer shell utilized as a part of Papua New Guinea to make the customary gems. See likewise Melo pearl (5.104). (Poppe G.T., 1992).

6.37. Melo amphora

a marine gastropod (5.101) and one of the melo volutes; this species experience up and down the northern shore of Australia and the southern shoreline of New Guinea. Their territory is on the sand and sand-mud bottoms from the shore and down to 10m., profound. Measurements are somewhere around 300 and 468mm long, with the biggest enrolled size of 524mm. The protoconch is wide and cream shaded, the spines are long and straight however just on the initial 2.5 whorls. The best recognizing character is the nonattendance of spines on the last grown-up whorl, and they have three in number columella plaits. The scope of Melo amphora and Melo aethiopica match with each other, it might be that Melo amphora is a southern variation of Melo aethiopica (Poppe G.T., 1992). See likewise Melo pearl (5.104).

6.38. Melo broderipii

a marine gastropod (5.101) and one of the melo volutes; this species lives principally in the Philippines but at the same time is recorded for New Guinea. Their territory is on sand and mud bottoms from the shore to around 10 meters profound. Measurements are somewhere around 250 and 350mm long, and the enlisted biggest size is 371mm. Melo broderipii’s have 20 to 25 spines for every whorl and the columella has four plaits. The base shading is pale cream chestnut and most shells have dull chocolate cocoa specks that get to be scarcer in the last whorl, (Poppe G.T., 1992). See additionally Melo pearl (5.104).

6.39. Melo georginae

a marine gastropod (5.101) and one of the melo volutes; this species is restricted to the bank of southern Queensland, Australia. Their living space is on sand bottoms somewhere around 2 and 90 meters profound, and their measurements are somewhere around 200 and 300mm long. The protoconch is pink and the shell has on a pinkish white or cream foundation and, wide regions of striking orange which frame thick sporadic reticulations which layout white triangles. Two dim winding groups emerge against the yellow-orange shade of the last grown-up whorl. This species lives more profound than some other individual from the variety. (Poppe G.T., 1992). See likewise Melo pearl (5.104).

6.40. Melo

a marine gastropod (5.101) and one of the melo volutes; this species lives from the South China Sea, south and west to Singapore and the Andaman Sea. Their natural surroundings is starting from the shore to 70 meters profound on mud bottoms. Measurements are somewhere around 150 and 275mm long with a reported record size of 362mm. The protoconch is secured by the last whorl; they have no spines and three columella plaits. For the most part they have a few groups of scattered dull bits, which are rarer and all the more loosely dispersed on the last whorl, (Poppe G.T., 1992). See likewise Melo pearl (5.104).

6.41. Mercenaria

shellfish species mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758) or Venus mercenaria, (class; bivalvia, request; Veneroida, family; Veneridae, variety; Mercenaria) is differently known as the northern quahog (its Indian name purported CO hawg), hardshell, littleneck, cherrystone, or chowder mollusk, is regular, economically essential and found on the east shore of North America where it lives in delicate residue in shallow water. Produces mollusk pearls (5.36) in different shades of purple. It tunnels shallowly in silt of either mud or sand and is among the most industrially imperative types of invertebrate. Like different shellfishes, it is a channel feeder. Mercenaria has a vast, overwhelming shell that ranges from being a pale caramel shading to shades of gray and white. The outside of the shell, aside from closest the umbo is secured with a progression of development rings. The inside of the shell is shaded a profound purple around the back edge and pivot.

6.42. Nodipecten (Lyropecten) nodosus

see scallop (6.65) and Lion’s paw (6.31).

6.43. Nodipecten (Lyropecten) subnodosus

see scallop and Lion’s paw, (6.65 and 6.31).

6.44. Obliquaria reflexa

Obliquaria reflexaria (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called Threehorn Wartyback, only Three Horned or Hornyback, three speck, or three bunch. It has huge handles that other from side to side that will recognize this mussel from every single other specie found in the Midwest. Obliquaria reflexaria lives in expansive waterways in sand or rock; it might be locally inexhaustible in impoundments.

6.45. Pinctada fucata

Pinctada fucata (Gould. 1857) is the Akoya (5.4) pearl clam (6.3), referred to in Japan as Pinctada martensii (6.48). It is now and again considered a subspecies of Pinctada imbricata (6.46). The shell is of a medium size and is somewhat swelled and delicate. The outside is unpleasant and is secured with layers of grayish purple lamellae which stretch out over the edges. The byssal indent lies beneath a little winged projection of the pivot line. Its natural surroundings ranges from Japan to China and Vietnam (Wye, 1991, Landman, 2001).

6.46. Pinctada imbricata

Pinctada imbricata (Röding, 1798) or the Atlantic Pearl Oyster, runs naturally in the western Atlantic from Bermuda and Florida to northern South America. It is the wellspring of Venezuelan pearls furthermore of Columbus’ pearls (Mikkelsen, 2003).

6.47. Pinctada maculata

little pearl clam or pipi is across the board all through French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

6.48. Pinctada martensii

see Pinctada fucata (6.45) and Akoya (5.4) shellfish (6.3). Likewise alluded to as Martins Pearl Oyster, the shell is of a medium size and is fairly swelled and delicate. The outside is unpleasant and is secured with layers of grayish purple lamellae which stretch out over the edges. The byssal indent lies underneath a little winged projection of the pivot line. Its living space ranges from Japan to China and Vietnam (Wye, 1991).

6.49. Pinctada margaritifera

an expansive clam that has break even with packed valves with a rich silver gray nacreous inside edged with grayish black. The outside is shaped from concentric layers of flaky green and gray lamellae. The wellspring of natural and cultured, naturally shaded, black pearls from French Polynesia (5.171, 5.172 and 5.173), the Cook Islands, Okinawa and other South Sea islands (Wye, 1991).

6.50. Pinctada maxima

the silver or golden lipped pearl clam (Pinctada maxima) is the biggest of the pearl shellfish. Conventional South Sea pearling armadas jumped for this pearl clam in the journey for its important expansive natural pearls, and for its significant top notch Mother of Pearl (5.109) which was looked for after worldwide for the mother-of-pearl (5.109) industry. Today it is utilized widely to create cultured south sea pearls in Australia, Indonesia, Myanmar Philippines and somewhere else in the South Seas (5.164). (Mikkelsen, 2003, Wye, 1991). (source : wholesale pearls beads )

6.51. Pinctada mazatlanica

Pinctada mazatlanica (Hanley, 1855), the La Paz Pearl Oyster, or the Panamic Black-Lipped Pearl Oyster. A medium estimated clam (18 cm) with just as compacted valves with a rich silver gray nacreous inside edged with a green or golden sheen. The outside is shaped from concentric layers of flaky light-chestnut and green lamellae. Environment ranges from inside the Gulf of California (otherwise called the sea of cortez), to Peru. Fisheries gave bounteous supplies of naturally shaded pearls, from light-gray to black, with numerous middle of the road tones of pink, gold and green. This species was the first to be utilized farmed financially for the generation of natural pearls in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. (Hurwit, K. 2000, Gomelsky,V. 2001, McLaurin, D. 2002, McLaurin, D. and E. Arizmendi, 2002)

6.52. Pinctada radiata

Pinctada radiata (Leache, 1814), or the Ceylon Pearl Oyster (6.9), is at times considered an assortment of Pinctada imbricata. Its environment ranges through the eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.

6.53. Placopectin magellanicus

see scallop, (6.65).

6.54. Pleuroploca gigantea

otherwise called the Florida Horse Conch, the biggest of the tulip shells. The tower is tall and the whorls, the shoulders of which have obtuse adjusted handles, are precise. Its shells are for the most part beige to light chestnut with a light orange opening and the non-nacreous pearls it produces are correspondingly hued. Pleuroploca gigantean lives in shallow sub tidal waters (Wye, 1991).

6.55. Potamilis purpuratus

is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA. It has a prolong and rectangular shell, expanded, dim green to black, with purple or pink nacre. Potamilis purpuratus possesses substantial streams e.g., Mississippi, in mud or blended mud and rock; regular names are; Bloofer, blue mucket, and purple wallet.

6.56. Proptera alata

Proptera alata (Say, 1817) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the Pink Heelsplitter, Purple Heelsplitter, flapjack, or ax back. It has an extended and rectangular shell, very much created back wing, dull green to dim cocoa, with purple or pink nacre and a length to 8 inches (20.3 cm). It lives in medium to vast streams in mud or blended mud, sand, and rock.

6.57. Proptera purpurata

Proptera purpurata (Lamarck, 1819) (equivalent word) acknowledged logical name Potamilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called the bleufer or purple wallet.

6.58. Pteria penguin

otherwise called the Mabe (5.97) pearl clam (6.32) or as black-winged pearl shellfish. An applaud and genuinely delicate shell, it has unequal valves, the upper or right valve being more expanded. The shellfish has a trademark expansion to the pivot line (Mikkelsen, 2003, Hurwit, 2003, Mao, 2004).

6.59. Pteria sterna

the rainbow-lipped pearl shellfish (Pteria sterna) otherwise called the western winged pearl clam is a winged clam with two unequal estimated parallel augmentations. The shell seems purplish-cocoa to silver gray and is respectably thin, normally developing to 14 cm long. The outside is shaped from concentric layers of chestnut to black lamellae. Its living space ranges from the eastern Pacific side of Baja California (Mexico), inside the Gulf of California (otherwise called the sea of cortez) and down to Peru. Fisheries gave plenteous supplies of naturally hued pearls, from light-gray to dull purple, with numerous moderate tones of pink, gold and green (Gomelsky, 2001, Hurwit, 2000, McLaurin, 2002, Moreno, 2002).

6.60. Quadrula metanevra

Quadrula metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl creating freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called Monkey face or Knobbed rock shell; Rounded or squared shell with substantial handles along the back edge and a particular space on the back edge that resembles a chimpanzee in profile. It frequently has particular crisscross markings on the shell. The shell is thick, adjusted or rectangular, and decently expanded. Its length is up to 4 inches (10.2 cm). Quadrula metanevra live in medium to substantial waterways in rock or blended sand and rock.

6.61. Quadrula nodulata

Quadrula nodulata (Rafinesque, 1822) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA also called Wartyback, or Two-horned wallet, winged pimpleback, pimpleback, knob shell, winged sphere shell. It is an adjusted shell with two columns of combined handles or pustules on the back portion of the shell; no sulcus. The nacre is pearly white and radiant. Quadrula nodulata live in extensive waterways or in the lower segments of medium-sized streams in sand or fine rock.

6.62. Quadrula pustulosa

Quadrula pustulosa (Lea, 1831) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA also called the Pimpleback, Wartyback, or Warty Pigtoe. It is an adjusted shell, a green stripe on the umbo, for the most part thickly secured with pustules. Bill cavity profound and open, not packed as in the purple wartyback. Its length is up to 4 inches (10.2 cm), and the nacre is pearly white and radiant.

6.63. Quadrula

Quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820) is a natural pearl delivering freshwater bivalve mollusc found in the USA, also called Mapleleaf or Stranger; genuinely thick shell with very much created teeth. Squared in framework, parallel surface with two columns of pustules isolated by a sulcus. Its length is up to 4 inches (10.2 cm). Quadrula lives in medium to extensive streams and stores with a mud, sand, or rock base.

6.64. Ruler Conch

see Strombus gigas (6.67).

6.65. Scallop

family pectinidae. The scallops or pectens are bivalves that have been a piece of man’s presence from the most punctual of times, both as a wellspring of nourishment and decoration. Their trademark fan shape remain genuinely reliable however there is variety in the ‗ears’ and molding. Their wide assortment of hues and examples have made them be a huge gatherer’s thing, to be the center of exploratory study and to serve as mechanical images, for example, that of Shell Oil. Scallops known not pearls are Nodipecten (Lyropecten) Nodosus (Atlantic Lion’s Paw) L. 1758., Nodipecten (Lyropecten) subnodosus (Pacific Lion’s Paw) Sowerby 1835, the Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Gmelin 1791 and Argopecten purpuratus. (Scarratt, 2004, Wight, 2004, Federman, 2004).

6.66. Silver-lipped Pearl Oyster

Pinctada maxima (6.50), is utilized widely for pearl culturing as a part of Australia, the Philippine Islands, Indonesia, and Myanmar; see additionally Gold-lipped Pearl Oyster (6.23).

6.67. Strombus gigas

otherwise called the Queen Conch might be found in regions of the Caribbean and Central America. One of the biggest in its gathering, it has a substantial flaring lip and the shoulders of its whorls bear gruff jutting knobs which are especially expansive for the body whorl. Produces the pink (and different hues) conch pearl (Wye, 1991).

Note: see Clause 2 Normative References; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

6.68. Triangleshell Pearl Mussel

Hyriopsis cumingii, (6.26) is the freshwater pearl mussel now utilized for pearl culturing as a part of China (Scarratt, 2000, Akamatsu, 2001).

6.69. Tridacna gigas

the biggest and heaviest referred to mollusc, otherwise called the Giant Clam, with the two valves weighing as much as around 225kg (around 500lbs). The stretched oval with equivalent valves has around five undulating and adjusted ribs. The Tridacna gigas inside is porcelaneous and white, just like the pearls it produces (Wye, 1991).

Note: see Clause 2 Normative References; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

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